Experiments on the studies of cosmic rays influence on some biological objects in the tapped geomagnetic field were performed successfully

An experiment on the influence of charged particles on the model objects under the conditions of the tapped magnetic field in "Helmholtz sphere"

Cosmic rays and absence of regular geomagnetic field - these two factors are he most dangerous, needed to be taken into account during the preparing of long-duration space mission to Mars and lunar base. The scientists of SINP MSU together with their colleagues from the Institute of Medical and Biological Problems RAS and the Biological Department MSU have recently studied simulateneous influence of these two factors on some biological objects. Three series of experiments were carried out on two single-cell biological objects - Algae Haematococcus and Synechocystis, and on the model biological object - carotenoids.

Galactic cosmic rays dangerous for the people onboard spacecrafts due to the powerful dose of radiation were simulated by the beam of accelerated alfa-particles produces by 12-cm cyclotron of SINP. Accelerated particles were extracted from the cyclotron's vacuum ion guide to the air and hit to a pan with Aglae suspension located in the center of a three-component system of Helmholtz coils with diameter of 0.9 meter, which provided tapping of the Earth's magnetic field.

Magnetic field of the Earth is necessary for the normal vital activity of biological objects. In particular, it was demonstrated by previous experiments with the eggs of Japan quails carried out by the same scientific team. It was found out, that under the conditions of the tapped magnetic field of the Earth normal fetation is presumably impossible. The most part of embryons got different anomalies of the cardiovascular system. In our experiments the magnetic field of the Earth was depressed within the range from 100 to 1000 times. Magnetic field at the Moon's surface and during the long-duration space missions will be thousands and even dozens of thousands times lower, than the one on the Earth's surface.

Be the way, for humans stay even under relatively low hypomagnetic conditions has negative influence. That's why in Russia the marginal coefficients of the Earth's magnetic field in everyday life and in industries were limited for the first time in the world (Sanitary Regulations and Standards 2.1.8/

Concerning the space missions in the near-Earth space there is no such a problem of the absence of the Earth's magentic field. These missions take place at the orbits of several hundred kilometers above the Earth (for instance, orbit of ISS is about 400 km), and there depression of the geomagnetic field is even lower than the values specified for residential buildings and public facilities at the Earth.

As it was mentioned above the experiments were carried out for the protzoan single-cell Algae - Haematococcus and Synechocystis, and for the model biological object - carotenoids. They were kept under hypomagnetic conditions about day and a half before the experiment. The experiment with irradiation was carried out under depression of the Earth's magnetic field and without it. The samples were exposed to radiation during several minutes.

Before the experiment is was supposed that the influence of the cosmic rays on the biological objects is approximately the same under conditions of regular geomagntic field and under hypomagnetic conditions. But the results of the experiment demonstrated that cosmic rays negative influence under conditions of the depressed magnetic field of the Earth measurably differs.

So for some components of life-support system and cosmonauts it is necessary to develop not only screening protection from cosmic rays, but also an analogue of geomagnetic field onboard the spacecrafts for long-duration flights and at the lunar base. Parameters of the equipment for suh simulator can be determined during the further experiments.

These first results on the influence of the cosmic rays on the biological objects under conditions of depressed geomagnetic field are needed to be checked carefully on different bioobjects. Experiments will be continued.

These experiments are performed by means of the equipment purchased within the frames of "The Program of the Mosocw University Development".

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